Posts Tagged Apologia Biology

Apologia Biology: Module 14

Kingdom Plantae:  Anatomy & Classification

So this Module really clarified something for me!  Remember when you first learned that tomatoes were actually a fruit?  I remember being told that was because it had seeds on the inside.  This was never a logical argument for me, because what about green beans, peas, and corn??  And don’t forget about strawberries with seed on the outside…All my life this has bothered me!

OK, so here’s the rule:  “If a food item is a reproductive plant organ, it is a fruit” 1

Basically, if it has seeds or is a seed, it is considered a fruit!  Now aren’t you glad you visited today? 🙂

For Module 14, the students completed Experiment 14.1: Leaf Collection & Identification, at home.  I did give them some creative leeway on this one; they could use the instructions in the book or be a little more creative.  (The thought of doing the whole leaf and waxed paper thing was a bit too Kindergarten for us!)  So here are a couple editional ideas:

*  Take a hike at a local nature preserve or in your own backyard, photograph, print and place in Lab Notebook with identications

*  Pick a good variety of leaves, make a color copy of them for your notebook and label

*  If you’re really a techie, use a scanner to scan each leaf, use a photo editing program to add labels, then print for your lab notebook

*  Have fun, be creative!

If we had more time, I would have taken the class on a Leaf Scavenger Hunt; the goal being to locate and identify all of the mosiacs, shapes, venations, margins, etc.   (With real or photographic evidence to support their findings!)

Experiment 14.2How Antocyanins and pH Help Determine Leaf Color

This is a fun experiment, but I forgot to get my camera out.  There are some great pictures and comments on this one over at Applie’s Place, so be sure to head over and check it out.    Here’s a video of a different approach to this experiment from Dux College in Sydney Australia:

This experiment made me think of Hydrangeas, as you can change the color of the flower by adjusting the acidity of the soil.  Check out this article from the University of Rhode Island’s Horticulture Department. (Scroll down to the part on Color Confusion.)

Experiment 14.3Cross Sections of Roots, Stems, and a Leaf

Compare the images below from our specimen, with the images in your book.  (Figures 14..7, 14.11, and 14.12)  We were not able to identify all the structures in all the samples, but you should be able to find most of them.  (Click on the image to see it larger.)

A.  Observation of a Leaf Cross Section:

B.  Observation of a lateral cross section of a Ranunculus Root

C.  Observation of a lateral cross section of a Zea mays root

D.  Observation of a lateral cross section of a Zea mays stem

E.  Observation of a lateral cross section of a Ranunculus Stem

Here’s an extra experiment to try:  Find the Hidden Colors of Autumn Leaves

Study Link:  Flashcards & Games at

Footnote: 1 Apologia Educational Ministries, Inc., Apologia Biology, 2nd Edition, Page 430 

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Apologia Biology: Module 13

Phylum Chordata

Before we get started, be sure to check out the Book Extras at the Apologia Website, there are many interesting links that go along with our study of Phylum Chordata.

Looking for vertebrates in Kingdom Animalia?  They can all be found here in Phylum Chordata.  Not all of these creatures have a backbone like the one in this x-ray though; some have a notochord instead….like the creepy and vampirous Lamprey!

Just for fun, check this short video out from “Dirty Jobs” courtesy of the Discover Channel:

Here’s a link to one more short Lamprey segment from Dirty Jobs, appropriately titled, “Slippery Sucker!”.  Can you tell we found this creature a bit intriguing?

If you’d like to find more information on many of the creatures mentioned in this module, you may want to take a look at ARKive: Images of Life on Earth.  The link will take you to the page on Fish, but there are many other creatures covered on this website.  (Note: May have some evolutionary content.)   There are lots of pictures, videos and all kinds of infomation including, fact sheet, status, description, range, habitat, threats, etc.

Experiment 13:1 – Perch Dissection

Here are a couple of links that may be especially helpful for you in identifying the internal anatomy of your perch:

CumberlandK12 Schools Biology 200

Our specimen were not great quality and many of the organs were difficult to identify.   Sorry, no good pics to share here…

For the dissection, I made up a Perch Dissection Worksheet for the students to use for their Lab Notebook, instead of drawing their own illustration.   You are welcome to download it if you’d like.  Additionally, you can find information on Perch Dissection at  (Note: Click the picture to visit their website and learn more about the functions of the organs.)  For fun, they also have a Salmon Dissection Game, which is much less smelly than a real dissection!

Experiment 13.2 – Frog Dissection

We had quite a variety in our specimen for this experiment….we took pictures to share with you!  Didn’t want you to miss out! 🙂  We had everything from Steve to Rainbow Bright Frog….those were not their actual names of course. Once we got inside, Steve was promptly renamed, Plain Jane because of the presence of eggs and oviducts and due to the lack of dye!   Plain Jane did not have nearly as many eggs as Rainbow Bright.   In the end we determined, that only one frog was a male and he had the most fat bodies!  Now, get your strength up, a take a look at a few photos:

 We found the Frog Dissection Guide from Home Science Tools quite helpful to use as a guide for our dissection.  Suprisingly, each frog was very different from the next.

That’s all for this post, but don’t forget to check out these other great blogs that have resources for Module 13:

Applies PlaceSahm-I-AmBooks \’N Other Stuff

Snack Ideas that go with this Module:  You must check out Applie’s Friendly Krispy Frog

Study Link:  Flashcards & Games at

Disclaimer:  No income of any kind has been received for the promotion of links and video’s incorporated into this post.  All copyrights on those items, remain with the originator!

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